Did you know yeast has been used for the process of making beer and wine thousands of years before it was discovered by converting sugar into alcohol?
Did you know yeast is a fungus that helps keep the digestive system and immune system healthy and also helps absorb vitamins and minerals from your food?
Did you know certain species of yeast can induce various diseases in humans and animals?
Candida albicans, for example, can induce infection in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract of humans. And, has been known to be directly tied to cancer since 1913!
There is a very good chance that this very moment you have a yeast overgrowth and don’t even realize it! As according to the molecular biologists at Rice University, 70 percent of all people are affected by Candida, a systemic yeast-fungal infection. Don’t worry, though, as this potentially harmful and preventable health condition can easily be corrected naturally!
Our goal is to help you improve your gut to stay healthy, which is why we invite you to attend our on-demand webinar HERE
During this experience, you will learn about the function yeast plays in the body and what happens when it becomes out of control, thus causing candida.
Did you know 5,000 pounds of rose petals are required to distill 1 pound of pure rose oil, making it one of the most precious and expensive oils on the market?
Did you know a single drop of peppermint essential oil is equivalent to 28 cups of peppermint tea?
If you’re curious as to how essential oils can benefit you and your family, join me for my next webinar, Essential Oils 101, on Saturday, October 13th at 1:00 pm CDT where you will learn everything you need to know about using essential oils!
From Energizing to Calming… Essential Oils Can Help!
No matter what you’re in need of, essential oils can improve your overall well-being of mind, body, and soul naturally! Essential oils can even benefit our pets! During our webinar on Saturday, October 13th we will also discuss what oils to avoid as well as how to safely apply them to your furry friends.
Helping others achieve optimal wellness has always been a passion of mine. Nature has so much more to offer than we give credit for. Historically nature provided the only form of medicine we needed. Our scientific advances have taken us far, but sometimes going back to our roots is the simplest solution. I am motivated to demystify the world of essential oils and make them more accessible to all. Holistic and natural approaches have been the subject of extensive research over the years, and benefits can no longer be overlooked!
During this webinar you will learn:
**Various application techniques**
**Essential oils for balancing hormones**
**Ways to boost immunity with essential oils**
**Supporting digestion, improving brain function, and MANY MORE ways to use essential oils to restore health and vitality**
**Essential oils for pets**
**Quick reference guides and recipes to get you started making custom essential oil blends today!**
You can help spread the word by inviting the people you care about to sign up for Essential Oils 101.
This is guaranteed to alter the way you see your medicine cabinet!
We have access to so much information, studies, and new discoveries it can be difficult to figure out where to start. This is from my facebook group Moms Taking Charge of Digestive Health and I thought I would share.
So often we are just told about MTHFR and the rest of the genes in the methylation cycle are left out. I can’t begin to count the number of times I have heard from clients that as soon as they found out they had a MTHFR snp they were put on methylated vitamins. On top of that I usually here how great they felt, then things started getting worse than before supplementing.
I can’t express enough how important it is that we put any and all test results into context and to avoid supplementing just because of a test result. Test results are great to have but they are just one piece to the puzzle. Which puzzle I am going to talk about in this video.
This first image is a brief, simple overview of a few of the cycles connected to MTHFR. Some of the key takeaways are SAMe is a product of that pathway and used in at least 200 processes throughout the body. Another takeaway is the cofactor vitamin B6 is needed for many of these genes to work well – from the detox/transsulfuration(bottom left) to neurotransmitters(far right). So if there are deficiencies in that vitamin guess what? Those genes are going to have problems whether there is a snp or not!
Did you know that in 2014, approximately 1 in every 68 children were identified as having autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Today that number is even more disturbing 🙁 How about that this prevalence is more common in boys than girls, with 1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls effected? More current figures estimate prevalence to be closer to 1 in 45 children ages 3 through 17. (This equates to 2% of children in the U.S. who are living with autism!)
No matter what the statistics say, individuals with an autism diagnosis and their families deserve the basic right to maximize the quality of life and live in a world where they are always respected and valued.
Autism does not discriminate and families and individuals of all cultures, ethnicities, and socioeconomic status are affected. The specific cause is currently unknown, however, it is likely to actually be a number of different developmental brain disorders that produce similar presentations. (Most cases of autism are thought to result from a combination of genetic predisposition and triggering environmental events which influence early stages of brain development.)
During this experience, you will finally have the chance to learn holistic techniques to reduce symptoms and find out how functional medicine can help make the future look a lot brighter.
The goal for Functional Autism Awareness on Saturday, August 25th at 1:00 pm CDT is to help you or your loved one learn how to best manage an autism diagnosis through functional health approaches. Hosted by: Salena Rothenberger, D.PSc, CFMP, CHC
There are many myths surrounding autism. (For example, the prevalence of autism has been steadily increasing for the last 40 years.
Truth: The rate of autism has increased by 600% in the last 20 years. In 1975, an estimated 1 in 1,500 had autism. In 2014, an estimated 1 in 68 had an autism spectrum disorder.
Are you aware many brilliant famous minds throughout history are thought to have been on the autism spectrum?
Some notable figures include:
– Albert Einstein
– Amadeus Mozart
– Sir Isaac Newton
– Thomas Jefferson
A well-known name in the autism world is Professor of Animal Science, Temple Grandin. She was diagnosed with autism as a child and is noted as one of the first individuals to publicly share insights about her personal experience of autism. She attributes her ability to think in pictures to helps her solve problems that neurotypical brains might miss.
Functional health approaches are ideal for helping individuals with ASD as the body is viewed as one integrated system rather than a collection of independent organs. By understanding and treating the body as a whole, functional health approaches can help various ranges of abnormalities such as gut imbalances and detoxification issues common in individuals with autism. (Such anomalies often cause the behavioral and mood symptoms of autism.)
We are driven to share the many holistic techniques and benefits functional medicine has to offer as the integrated approach of functional health looks at diet, exercise, detoxification, and supplementation as means to reducing symptoms of autism.
There is no reason you or your family should endure any additional stress. We understand autism comes with enough complications and trying times, and now settling for mediocrity does not have to be your future.
Please invite anyone you feel who can benefit… grandparents, caregivers, and friends are all absolutely welcome!
Join me to get clear on how you can regain your optimal fuel and health by incorporating superfoods into your diet at my next webinar, Superfood, Super You on Saturday, August 18th at 1:00 pm CDT Register here to save your spot: Superfood, Super You Seminar
Salena Rothenberger, D.PSc, CFMP, CHC
Superfoods are universal! Every culture throughout recorded human history has identified certain indigenous foods to have superior health-promoting nutrition.
For a food to be considered a superfood, it must contain significant amounts of a variety of healthful bio-available nutrients (usable by the body in the form it is ingested). This may be vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, phytonutrients, or beneficial macronutrients. This basically means all we have to do to reap their benefits is eat it!
The American diet is nutrient poor and calorie dense. This leads to a lot of undernourished and unhealthy people while uprising trends in obesity, depression, and chronic illnesses. This diet of processed foods creates a welcoming environment for inflammatory cells that promote disease which creates an endless cycle.
Luckily, superfoods have the ability to stop inflammation in its tracks, and in some cases, can even reverse existing cell damage!
Superfoods provide us with the nutrition our bodies need AND strengthen our immune system like none other.
During this experience, you will gain clarity on what makes a superfood truly earns its title, how you can incorporate them into your diet, and how they can optimize your health!
Invite the people you care about most to my webinar, Superfood, Super You, to learn ways to take control of our diet, health, and life!
Now that you know you can make a change, will I see you there?
This is guaranteed to be incredible!
We Can’t Wait to Share With You on Saturday, August 18th at 1:00 pm CDT!
This year has already flown by, I can’t believe we are in the third month already! I have many things in the works to share with you and have been eager for reliable internet service to share these fascinating diagnostic testing options with you. Especially for those on that auto-immunity journey and those on that health journey roller coaster which seems to have wheels spinning in circles…
I’ll cut to the chase – DAO, LPS and Zonulin – Have you heard of them? Do you know their significance? Let me give a brief, and I mean brief, overview of what they are and why they are significant.
DAO – Diamine Oxidase is primarily secreted in the digestive tract and helps set the stage for a healthy environment in the digestive tract. Do you have any guesses as to one of the things which happens when someone has low DAO? If you guessed an adverse environment with an unhealthy microbiome you guessed correct!
LPS – Lipopolysaccharide is also primarily located in the gut. It is an endotoxin which comes about as your body is fighting bacteria. When we find this in the blood that tells us it is no longer confined in the digestive tract, rather has made its way into our system!
Zonulin – (this is one you may have heard about!) Dr. Alessio Fasano, from Italy, is responsible for discovering the role of this fascinating protein. Simply put – Zonulin is responsible for opening the tight junctions thereby allowing ‘stuff’ to pass between the cells lining the digestive tract. (If you want to dig deeper and connect some dots on your health journey take a minute and do a quick search at Pubmed: “Fasano Zonulin” and see what turns up 🙂
First, if you haven’t read about the microbiome you may want to check out this post. When our digestive tract has an unhealthy environment that sets the stage for unhealthy flora to take up residence. In addition what is typically healthy flora can get out of balance and become overpopulated, thereby rendering this once helpful bacteria unhelpful. Furthermore, this loops back to causing an imbalance so we are left with having an imbalance due to bad environment and a bad environment due to an imbalance – quite the ‘catch 22’ situation!
Next have you heard of antibodies? Are you familiar with how they come about? Again, a brief snapshot. Antibodies are part of the second line of defense in our immune system. SIgA is the first line involved in the elimination of ‘invaders’. When these invaders make their way through the lining of the digestive tract(such as when Zonulin opens the door) antibodies come into the scene. Can you see where this is headed and how this is tied to autoimmunity?
So, we have antibodies getting made and foreign invaders attaching to things where they shouldn’t and our body decides to do what it can to eliminate the offender despite the collateral damage! It is rather fascinating how we are made!
In addition to all of this histamines and allergies come on the scene… I said I was going to keep this brief so will leave it at that… Things start to go downhill and the circling domino effect magnifies… Autoimmunity takes hold…
What can we do about abnormal findings?
Ah, the million dollar question!!! I wish I had the answer you are looking for, the fact is there isn’t a one size fits all solution. This is why those of us with autoimmune conditions often find ourselves spinning in circles trying this protocol and that protocol. For instance, overall those with MS find Wahls protocol effective, others may find Autoimmune Paleo effective or perhaps SCD(Specific Carbohydrate Diet). Some may need to tweak and eliminate FodMAPs, Histamines or Nightshades…
We find relief in one area and think we are on the road to healing then have another ‘episode’. What you do for your T1 Diabetic condition may be different than what needs to happen for my T1D son. This is where these three tests can be very valuable! We know ‘leaky gut’ is associated with autoimmune diseases, so the challenge is to find the breach and fix it. Is it due to low DAO? Perhaps its an abundance of Zonulin? What about a combination of the two? This is where partnering with a functional practitioner is invaluable. We can help you identify patterns and nuances specific to your situation. We have to look at all the clues given us, these three markers are just three of the many clues to your ‘health mystery’.
I would love to be able to tell you to take this probiotic, that combination of supplements and you go on your happy way to healing. But, one thing I am 10,000% certain of is we are individuals and a restoration of health must be customized! Are there similarities and common components to the solutions? Absolutely!!!
So, can I help you? Most likely, but it would take looking at your health journey with a fine tooth comb! In the meantime I can recommend a few things which will encourage your body to seek homeostasis:
The simplest way to come up with a customized plan will take one of two things:
Find a functional practitioner who is passionate about YOUR health challenges. (For instance my primary interest is in autoimmune challenges, another practitioner may focus on cardiovascular or hormone challenges) Many do not ‘specialize’ and that is ok, they can still help you formulate a plan!
Enroll in functional medicine training and put the pieces of your health back together.
Feel free to contact me with any questions or comments 🙂 And of course you can also take advantage of my free 15 min consult! Best wishes on your journey!
A few references:
Polyamine Oxidase and Diamine Oxidase Activities in Human Milk during the First Month of Lactation.
Bjelakovic L, Kocic G, Bjelakovic B, Najman S, Stojanović D, Jonovic M, Pop-Trajkovic Z.
Iran J Pediatr. 2012 Jun;22(2):218-22.
PMID: 23056889 Free PMC Article
Zonulin, a regulator of epithelial and endothelial barrier functions, and its involvement in chronic inflammatory diseases.
Sturgeon C, Fasano A.
Tissue Barriers. 2016 Oct 21;4(4):e1251384. doi: 10.1080/21688370.2016.1251384. Review.
Abnormal intestinal permeability and microbiota in patients with autoimmune hepatitis.
Lin R, Zhou L, Zhang J, Wang B.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 May 1;8(5):5153-60.
PMID: 26191211 Free PMC Article
Chronic Kidney Disease Induced Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage Associated with Intestinal Oxidative Stress Injury.
Yu C, Wang Z, Tan S, Wang Q, Zhou C, Kang X, Zhao S, Liu S, Fu H, Yu Z, Peng A.
Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2016;2016:6720575. doi: 10.1155/2016/6720575.
PMID: 27493661 Free PMC Article
Concomitant Prevalence of Low Serum Diamine Oxidase Activity and Carbohydrate Malabsorption.
Enko D, Meinitzer A, Mangge H, Kriegshäuser G, Halwachs-Baumann G, Reininghaus EZ, Bengesser SA, Schnedl WJ.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2016:4893501. doi: 10.1155/2016/4893501.
PMID: 28042564 Free PMC Article
Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Middle Ear Inflammation Disrupts the cochlear Intra-Strial Fluid–Blood Barrier through Down-Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Zhiqiang Hou, Jing Cai, Mingmin Dong, Xiaorui Shi
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3): e0122572. Published online 2015 Mar 27. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122572
Analysis of the human monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome and response to lipopolysaccharide provides new insights into genetic aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease.
Baillie JK, Arner E, Daub C, De Hoon M, Itoh M, Kawaji H, Lassmann T, Carninci P, Forrest AR, Hayashizaki Y; FANTOM Consortium., Faulkner GJ, Wells CA, Rehli M, Pavli P, Summers KM, Hume DA.
PLoS Genet. 2017 Mar 6;13(3):e1006641. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006641. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28263993 Free Article
Systemic lipopolysaccharide induces cochlear inflammation and exacerbates the synergistic ototoxicity of kanamycin and furosemide.
Hirose K, Li SZ, Ohlemiller KK, Ransohoff RM. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2014; 15:555–70. doi: 10.1007/s10162-014-0458-8 PMID: 24845404
Lipopolysaccharide alters the blood-brain barrier transport of amyloid beta protein: a mechanism for inflammation in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.
Jaeger LB, Dohgu S, Sultana R, Lynch JL, Owen JB, Erickson MA, et al. Brain Behav Immun. 2009; 23:507–17. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2009.01.017 PMID: 19486646
Restoration of impaired intestinal barrier function by the hydrolysed casein diet contributes to the prevention of type 1 diabetes in the diabetes-prone BioBreeding rat.
Visser JT, Lammers K, Hoogendijk A, Boer MW, Brugman S, Beijer-Liefers S, Zandvoort A, Harmsen H, Welling G, Stellaard F, Bos NA, Fasano A, Rozing J.
Diabetologia. 2010 Dec;53(12):2621-8. doi: 10.1007/s00125-010-1903-9.
PMID: 20853098 Free PMC Article
I have to confess I struggle with remembering to count my blessings… Especially on days like I have experienced this past week when my sons blood sugar numbers have been all over the map and well outside a ‘normal’ let alone ‘healthy’ range. But tonight’s middle of the night check is one of those where joy overflows – the kind of joy where you wake up your spouse, you call your best friend in the middle of the night to share great news! Praise our creator! The joy seems infinite at times like these 🙂 And it’s a joy that one has to share – I give you my joy, take all you need, and take a little extra to give someone else in need…
One of the common complaints about health is having brain-fog. We often think this is just a part of aging which we have no control over. Is that the case? What happens when we look at our brain from a functional perspective?
The simple fact is food affects our brain, for better or worse. Choosing foods which support proper brain function is vital to our overall wellness. Growth of healthy cells, healthy connections in the brain and efficient operation of our brain, and in turn our entire body, are affected by the foods we choose to consume. One of my favorite sayings about brain health comes from Dr. William Sears:
“Forget low-carb and low-fat diets. Eat a ‘right-carb’ and a ‘right-fat’ diet for optimal brain health!”
I couldn’t agree more! The quality of what we eat is of greater importance than the quantity. Let’s take a quick look at our brain health and food choices.
When our brain is provided with healthy nourishment it can make healthy connections, process information, create memories and signal muscles and hormones to react and move. Next time you think about healthy eating, don’t just think about the benefits it will have on your waistline. Rather, think of all the positive benefits your brain receives from getting the right brain-boosting nutrition!
For optimal function our brains need:
Omega-3 fats, Folate, Antioxidants and Carbohydrates.
Top 3 Brain-Boosting Foods
Fish: Wild Caught Salmon (Omega-3s – DHA & EPA)
Berries: Blueberries, Blackberries (antioxidants)
Greens: Bok Choy, Spinach, Collard Greens (folate)
One of my family’s favorite meal is grilled salmon with a side of steamed veggies and large bowl of mixed greens topped with a bit of olive oil and berries. Even my child who isn’t fond of fish loves this meal! I have a super simple salmon recipe here. As well as more information on Omega-3s and essential fats here.
So the next time you go shopping remember to stop by the produce and seafood departments to get a special brain-boosting treat 🙂
Soares AA, et al (2017) A double- blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPFA ɷ-3) for the prevention of migraine in chronic migraine patients using amitriptyline. Nutr Neurosci. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2016.1266133.
Pu H, Jiang X, Wei Z, Hong D, Hassan S, Zhang W, Shi Y, Chen L, Chen J.(2016) Repetitive and prolonged omega-3 fatty acid treatment after traumatic brain injury enhances long-term tissue restoration and cognitive recovery.
Cell Transplant. doi: 10.3727/096368916X693842. PMID: 27938482
Pu H, Jiang X, Hu X, Xia J, Hong D, Zhang W, Gao Y, Chen J, Shi Y. (2016) Delayed Docosahexaenoic Acid Treatment Combined with Dietary Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Promotes Long-Term Neurovascular Restoration After Ischemic Stroke.
Transl Stroke Res. 2016 Dec;7(6):521-534.
Jiraungkoorskul W. Review of neuro-nutrition used as anti-alzheimer plant, spinach Spinacia oleracea. Phcog Rev [serial online] 2016 [cited 2017 Jan 17];10:105-8. Available from: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2016/10/20/105/194040
The primary health concerns of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were infections diseases. A shift in adverse health came about after the fortification and enrichment of foods. Chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer and stroke became the prevailing ailments. These diseases continue to rise, some at alarming rates. Let’s take a quick look between two prevalent diseases today: Heart Disease and Diabetes. I am going to especially look at the incidents in Nacogdoches County in the State of Texas. [PDF of this post here]
Some quick stats:
Is this a sign of malfunction in the bodies of the population?
Maintaining a healthy status requires a homeostasis of the bodily systems. Having healthy levels of glucose in our blood is vital for proper balance. When we eat, signals are sent in our body to aid in the metabolizing of the food we just ate. Insulin is secreted as a result of some of those signals. It is the “key” which allows glucose to enter the cells. Without proper signaling of insulin, glucose cannot enter the cells. This results in glucose going to other parts of the body. For our body to function properly it is important to keep glucose levels stable.
When our glucose levels are outside a healthy range it attaches to proteins resulting in Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs). Excessive AGEs leads to plaque forming in the blood vessels. One consequence is an impairment of the endothelium which lines the blood vessels. It is hindered in releasing nitric oxide into the blood stream. With this compromised cardiovascular system, the body has a difficult time repairing daily wear and tear. Thus an increase in inflammation. Heart disease often ensues.
In fact…. Studies have shown an increased incidence of heart disease in the presence of diabetes!
With a high prevalence of heart disease and diabetes there is a need to understand the role of a proper functioning body. In regards to diabetes and cardiovascular disease the role of glucose balance is of marked importance. Maintaining proper levels eliminates an exacerbating risk factor for both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A body which is in homeostasis is free of disease contrasted with a body where malfunction is present, disease emanates.
What can you do today to ensure a proper functioning body?
A.G.E. Foundation. What are AGEs http://agefoundation.com/age/
CDC Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke TablesGeographic Area 2010-2012.
Davis, C., and E. Saltos. (May 1999) “Dietary Recommendations and How They Have Changed Over Time,” America’s Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences, Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 750, USDA, ERS. Chapter 2.
Texas Department of State Health Services. (2012). 2012 Texas Heart Disease and Stroke
Fact Sheets, (2013). Diabetes Prevalence Among Adults BRFSS data Tables
Yamagishi, S-i., Nakamura, N., and Matsui, T. (2016) Glycation and cardiovascular disease in diabetes: A perspective on the concept of metabolic memory. J Diabetes, doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12475.
If you are reading this chances are you are looking for something more than the standard tests for diagnosing heart disease. My guess would be you have a desire to get to the underlying causes and factors of your state of health. I would further venture to say you are also looking at ways to prevent adverse health. I am going to quickly touch on Cardiovascular Assessment in this post.
Heart disease is at the top of the list of health issues in the United States and a growing concern for younger adults. There are several tests available that will dig deeper into the function inside your body and provide us with warnings adverse health is on its way. These tests are indicators of potential malfunction and impending consequences of the disruption of proper balance. To get a better look at what is going on ask your healthcare provider for the following tests:
LDL Density Patterns
Some of these you are probably already familiar with such as the Cholesterol and Triglycerides. You may be wondering – Why the other tests? What makes them significant?
C-reactive protein is a protein which indicates inflammation in the body. This test is a strong risk predictor of future heart attack and/or stroke. It is important to note past or current infections can increase the levels of this protein.
Homocysteine is an amino acid which can injure the lining of blood vessels, thus triggering deposits and atherosclerosis. One study found that men with high homocysteine had 3 times greater risk of heart attack!
Lipoproteins are lipids and proteins that are transported through your bloodstream in ‘packages’. One of these is Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] Lipoprotein(a) is a marker for predicting the severity of future heart disease. This is often strongly influenced by heredity.
Fibrinogen is an important agent in the process of the formation of blood clots. Again, elevated levels are linked to heart disease and/or stroke.
Each of these areas are affected by our diets and lifestyles. Making changes in our habits can greatly affect the damage from elevated ‘warning lights’. Be sure to ask your provider for ways to return a healthy homeostasis in your body!
A few quick tips are:
As always, comments, questions welcomed and I hope this has been beneficial to you or a loved one!
Cantin B, Despres JP, Lamarche B, Moorjani S, Lupien PJ, Bogaty P, Bergeron J, Dagenais GR. Association of fibrinogen and lipoprotein(a) as a coronary heart disease risk factor in men (The Quebec Cardiovascular Study). Am J Cardiol. 2002 Mar 15;89(6):662-6.
Lamarche B, St-Pierre AC, Ruel IL, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Despres JP. A prospective, population-based study of low density lipoprotein particle size as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in men. Can J Cardiol. 2001 Aug;17(8):859-65.
Blake GJ, Ridker PM. Novel clinical markers of vascular wall inflammation. Circ Res. 2001 Oct 26;89(9):763-71.
Clarke R, Lewington S, Donald A, Johnston C, Refsum H, Stratton I, Jacques P, Breteler MM, Holman R. Underestimation of the importance of homocysteine as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in epidemiological studies. J Cardiovasc Risk. 2001 Dec;8(6):363-9.
Matsumoto Y, Daida H, Watanabe Y, Sunayama S, Mokuno H, Yokoi H, Yamaguchi H. High level of lipoprotein(a) is a strong predictor for progression of coronary artery disease. J Atheroscler Thromb. 1998;5(2):47-53.
von Eckardstein A, Schulte H, Cullen P, Assmann G. Lipoprotein(a) further increases the risk of coronary events in men with high global cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Feb;37(2):434-9.
Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Can J Cardiol. 1998 May;14 Suppl B:14B-17B.